Buteyko Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs)
Bowler et el (1998) Buteyko Breathing Techniques in Asthma: A Blinded Randomised Control Trial. Medical Journal of Australia Vol. 169, pp.575-578. At 3 months the Buteyko group significantly reduced bronchodilator use by an average of 90% compared to 5% by control group. No significant difference between groups in hospital admission or oral steroid use. No change in oral steroid use or lung function in either group. Trial was criticised for providing greater input to Buteyko group compared with the control group.
Opat et al (2000) A Clinical Trial of the Buteyko Breathing Technique as Taught by Video. Journal of Asthma Vol. 37, No. 7, pp.557-564. Two groups of asthmatics, both groups watched a video twice a day for 2 weeks. The intervention group watched a Buteyko instructional video, the control watched a nature video. At 6 weeks the Buteyko group showed a significant decrease in bronchodilator use by 60% and significant improvement in quality of life, with improvements in breathlessness and mood. The control group increased bronchodilator use by 2.5%. There was no change in inhaled steroid use or lung function in either group and no difference in exacerbations, oral steroid use or hospital admission between groups.
Cooper et el (2003) Effect of Two Breathing Exercises (Buteyko and Pranayama) in asthma: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Thorax Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 649-659. Compared Buteyko with the Pink City Lung Exerciser (a device which slowed expiratory flow) and a placebo group. The Buteyko group showed significant reduction in bronchodilator use and symptoms at 6 months, with no significant change in these variables in the other 2 group. There was no change in inhaled steroid use or lung function in either group and no difference in exacerbations, oral steroid use or hospital admission between groups.
McHugh et al (2003) Buteyko Breathing Technique for Asthma: An Effective Intervention. New Zealand Medical Journal Vol. 116, No. 1187. Designed to counter the criticisms of the Bowler et al, 1998 study. Bronchodilator use was significantly reduced in both both the Buteyko and the control group at 6 weeks, months and 6 months. However bronchodilator use was significantly lower in the Buteyko group than the control group at 6 weeks and 3 months. At all follow up points inhaled steroid use was significantly reduced in the Buteyko group, with no change in the control group. There was no change in quality of life or lung function in either group and no difference in exacerbations, oral steroid use or hospital admission between groups.
Slader et al (2006) Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Different Breathing Techniques in the Management of Asthma. Thorax Vol. 61, pp. 651-656. Compared Buteyko with upper limb exercise combined with 'controlled breathing', which focused on relaxation and posture but not nasal nor hypoventilation. This was the first trial to advise the control group to use their exercises on the onset of asthma symptoms, prior to considering reliever inhaler use. Both groups significantly reduced their reliever use (86%) and steroid use (50%) at 3 months. Reliever free days increased from 6.7% to 53.5% in the Buteyko group and 8.3% to 55.3% in the control group at 3 months.
Cowie et al (2008) A Randomised Control Trial of the Buteyko Technique as an Adjunct to Conventional Management of Asthma. Respiratory Medicine Vol. 102, No. 5, pp. 726-732. The largest Buteyko trail to date with 129 participants. Buteyko vs. breathing control and relaxation. At 6 months the Buteyko group had significantly reduced their inhaled steroid use, with no change in steroid use in the control group. Asthma control (based on the Canadian asthma consensus report) had significantly improved in both groups with the Buteyko group control increasing from 40% to 79% and the control group increasing from 44% to 72%.
Prem et al (2013) Comparison of the Effects of Buteyko and Pranayama Breathing Techniques on Quality of Life in Patients with Asthma- A Randomised Controlled Trial. Clinical Rehabilitation. Vol. 27, No.2, pp.133-141.
The authors criticised Cooper et al, 2003 using the Pink City Lung Exerciser to mimic Pranayama (yogic breathing) as no preparatory breathing exercises or nostril breathing were included. A large trial of 120 participants. Three groups; control, Buteyko and Pranayama. At 3 months both the Buteyko and Pranayama groups demonstrated a clinically and statistically significant improvement using the Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire (within sub domains and total score). There was no significant difference between these 2 groups. There was no significant change in the control group. The Buteyko group was the only group to demonstrate a significant improvement in asthma control using the Asthma Control Questionnaire. There was no significant difference in moderate or severe asthma exacerbations between all groups.
Other Buteyko Research
Adelola et al (2013) Role of Buteyko Breathing Techniques in Asthmatics with Nasal Symptoms. Clinical Otolaryngology. Vol.38, No.2, pp.190-191. Published as a correspondence.
Cooper et al (2009) Effect of Mouth Taping at Night on Asthma Control: A Randomised Single-Blinded Crossover Study. Respiratory Medicine. Vol. 103, No. 9, pp.813-819. Looks at mouth taping only.
Hassan et al (2012) Effect of Buteyko Breathing Technique on Patients with Bronchial Asthma. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. Vol.61, pp.235-241. Not randomised.